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2016年职称英语考试《阅读理解》特点及解题技巧

专业技术人员以英语为工具,主要通过阅读获取相关学科和专业的信息,因此,全国专业技术职称英语等级考试也主要是考阅读理解。从考试题型来看,主要是多项选择题。该题型在职称英语等级考试中占15题,45分(占总分的45%)。另外,全国专业技术职称英语等级考试中还采用了阅读判断、概括大意与完成句子、补全短文和选择填空等题型,它们实质上也是考核阅读能力的题型。由此可见,为了通过全国专业技术职称英语等级考试,必须掌握最基本的阅读技能,努力提高阅读理解能力。

全国职称英语等级考试大纲就阅读理解能力的考核目标作了如下规定:

读者应能综合运用英语语言知识和阅读技能来理解本专业的或一般内容的英语书面材料。阅读能力主要包括下列几个方面:

1.掌握所读材料的主旨和大意;

2.了解阐述主旨的事实和细节;

3.利用上下文猜测某些词汇和短语的意义;

4.既理解个别句子的意义,也理解上下文之间的意义关系;

5.根据所读材料进行判断和推论;

6.领会作者的观点、意图和态度。

根据考试大纲规定的考核目标,我们归纳出相应的六种阅读理解题的类型,并具体地探讨如何答好这些阅读理解题。

1.掌握所读材料的主旨和大意

掌握所读材料的主旨和大意是正确理解全文的关键。对主题思想的提问是阅读理解测试的必考题。但提问方式及用词都有差异,这类题常见提问方式可归纳如下:

1. The main idea of this passage is _______

2. This passage tells us_______

3. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

4. Which of the following sentences best summarizes the author's main point?

5. Which of the following best states the theme of the passage?

6. The subject matter of this selection is ______

7. The passage mainly discusses_______

8. This passage illustrates ______

9. This paragraph centers / focuses on ______

10. This passage mainly deals with ______

11. This passage is chiefly concerned with ______

12. The author's purpose in writing this passage is _______

13. What is the passage mainly about?

14. What is the best title of the passage?

15. The major point discussed in the passage is

解答这一类题目的基本方法如下:

A.找出主题句。首先要读标题,因为标题往往是主题句中的核心词或概括性的词。抓住全文中心思想的最快捷的途径就是找出主题句。主题句一般位于文章或段落的开始,然后围绕主题展开论述。因为许多作者喜欢采用从一般到个别的论证或叙述方式,即演绎法(deduction)。这是一种很常见的文章或段落的写作形式。若作者采用归纳法(induction),即从个别到一般来论证或叙述,主题旬就会位于段末。除此之外,主题句还有可能位于段落的中间。找到主题句后,就应以它为标准,在解题时,凡是与主题句意思最接近的选项必然是正确的答案。

例1

In rock music there is a distinct and almost overwhelming beat.No single beat is characteristic of the music today. But each song has an easily recognizable rhythm.As you listen to a son9,your foot usually starts to pick up the beat.Before lon9,your entire body seems to be moving with it.Your head pounds with the beat,and there is no room for thought.Only the surge of the music is important.In its own way,rock music is as dominant as the rock Gibraltar. Its message is an evergrowing emotional one.

在这一段文章中 “In rock music there is a distinct and almost overwhelming beat.” 为主题句。beat则是句子的信息核心。该词在第2、4、6句里重复出现,而第3句中的“rhythm”(节奏)跟“beat”(强烈的节奏)意思基本一致,这就保证了主题平稳而持续的发展。请注意:第8、9句作者重申并总结了主题句,而不是说段末是主题句。

2.了解阐述主旨的事实和细节

为了准确理解每篇文章或每段文章的中心思想,我们必须要找到与中心思想有关的事实和细节。一个好的作者必然会引用事实、或分析原因、或对比事物间的关系等以论证自己的论点。常用以提问这类事实和细节的问题有两种。一种是要求找出文章中的重要事实或细节,这些常与wh0,when,where,which或why有关。另一种问题是辨认哪些细节在文章中没被提及。这些问题常有except,not(mentioned/true),least等。例如:

1. What causes ?

2. Some people do sth. because__________

3. Sb. is … because ________.

4. Why does the author mention ……?

5. Which of the following best characterizes the main feature of……?

6. Where in the passage does the author describe……?

7. Which of the following does the author want to illustrate in discussing ……?

8. What time does the writer think is ?

9. What does the author pay least attention to?

10. Which of the following is not a result of _______?

11. All of the following may be …… except ________.

12. Which of the following is not mentioned?

13. Which of the following statements is true ?

14. The author states all of the items listed except_______.

为了正确回答这一类题目,读者往往要采用各种阅读方法和解题技巧,也就是综合解题法。在通读全文、掌握文章的中心大意的基础上,首先要仔细看懂问题,明确问的是什么,然后按照题意进行寻读,找到正确答案的根据。

7. Which of the following does the author want to illustrate in discussing ……?

8. What time does the writer think is ?

9. What does the author pay least attention to?

10. Which of the following is not a result of _______?

11. All of the following may be …… except ________.

12. Which of the following is not mentioned?

13. Which of the following statements is true ?

14. The author states all of the items listed except_______.

为了正确回答这一类题目,读者往往要采用各种阅读方法和解题技巧,也就是综合解题法。在通读全文、掌握文章的中心大意的基础上,首先要仔细看懂问题,明确问的是什么,然后按照题意进行寻读,找到正确答案的根据。

3.根据上下文判断某些词汇和短语的意义

在阅读理解测试中必然要考查对词或词组的意思的理解。这也是测试考生阅读能力的一种方法。在完整的语篇中,单词和词组的意义总是受特定的情景、上下文所限制的,因此可以根据上下文,并利用所掌握的句法、构词法和词汇等知识确定它们的意义。掌握这一基本技能不仅能帮助读者从词或词组的多种义项中选择符合上下文的解释,而且往往还能推测某些生词的大致意思。常见的这类题型有:

1. The word "……" in line …… refers to ______.

2. The expression "……" (line paragraph ……) is closest in meaning to

3. In line……, the word "……" most probably means ________

4. In line……, the word "……" could best be replaced by _________

5. By “……” the author means _________

6. The word "……", as used by the author, most nearly means ________

7. In this passage, the word "……" means

8. "……" in the context of the passage refers to ???_________

9. “……”, as used in the passage, can best be defined as _________

4.既理解个别句子的意义,也理解上下文之间的意义关系

阅读理解不能仅仅停留在句子水平上。有的读者对一篇文章的一些个别句子好像是理解的,但由于不能理解它们与上下文中其他句子的逻辑关系,因而整篇文章讲的是什么则不能准确掌握。在阅读理解测试中,考核这一阅读技能的题目是大量的,而且题干的形式和措词没有固定形式,但从考核目标和内容来看,这一类题目往往要求读者准确理解一些有关联的句子之间的种种逻辑关系(例如概括和举例说明、前因后果、行为动机、比较、条件或让步等)。例如:

1. Which of the following may cause/lead to …… according to the passage?

2. Sb. is asked/advised to do sth. Because ________.

3. The aim of…… is/was ______.

4. The best solution for …… seems to be ________

5. is specifically mentioned in paragraph …… as an example of _______.

6. The author argues that a teacher's chief concern should be ________

7. According to the passage/author, people differ in their opinions about .

8. … encourages the use of sth. so that _______

9. According to the passage the new device proved to be _________

10. Which of the following best characterizes the main feature of…… ?

5.根据所读材料进行一定的判断和推论

判断和推理的能力对深刻理解一篇文章十分重要。特别是对理解作者字里行间的言外之意以及作者的观点、写作意图和态度十分重要。所以这也是阅读理解测试中常见的题目内容。这类题常要求考生推断文章的含义和引申意思;根据文章所提供的部分信息或文章的含义进行归纳;判断所节选文章的某一部分的内容要点;有时甚至要求推断作者的身分。下面是判断、推理的一些常见的表达方式:

1. What is implied in the sentence(s) …… ?

2. It is implied in the passage that

3. The passage implies / suggests that

4. It can be inferred/seen/concluded from the passage that

5. Which of the following can be inferred from this passage?

6. Which of the following can be concluded from this passage?


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